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Introduction of optical fiber bandwidth
optical fiber transmission carrier is light, although very wide frequency band, but it does not make full use of, this is the light in the optical fiber transmission dispersion ( Mode dispersion, material dispersion and waveguide dispersion) Because of the. They to different extent influence fiber bandwidth.
mode between the dispersion is due to the different patterns of light in the core - Package the whole Angle of reflection on the interface is different, different length of the tortuous path forward. After a beam of light pulse incident optical fiber, therefore, it contains various modes by a certain distance transmission to the finish time will be successively, and pulse broadening. It can make a bundle of narrow pulse broadening 20 nanoseconds/km, corresponding bandwidth of optical fiber is about 20 MHZ, km.
is a kind of material dispersion mode dispersion. Even the laser optical fiber transmission by light, also contains a wide spectrum of different wavelengths of light weight. For example, GaAlAs semiconductor laser laser spectral width is about 2 nm. Light transmission rate is related to the refractive index n in the medium, and refractive index changing with the wavelength of quartz medium, so when a beam of light pulse incident optical fiber, even the same pattern, transmission group velocity also can have difference with different wavelengths of light, led to the finish after the pulse broadening, this is the material dispersion. In 1. Near 3 micron, refractive index, along with the change of wavelength, therefore, material dispersion is small ( For example, 3 picosecond/km, nano) 。 Eliminate mode between dispersion optical fiber bandwidth is greatly increased. Pure quartz in 1. On 27 micron wavelength with zero dispersion properties.
is also a kind of waveguide dispersion mode dispersion, is caused by group velocity mode propagation constant changing with the wavelength difference. The smaller of waveguide dispersion. In 1. 3 micron wavelength near, material dispersion was significantly reduced, so that the two are about the same, and may cancel each other out. Optical fiber according to the materials used, the kinds of quartz optical fiber, multi-component glass fiber, plastic cladding fiber and plastic optical fiber and so on several major categories. Of silica fiber with high purity SiO2 glass fiber material, has the advantages of low attenuation, frequency band width, dominate in the research and application. Such as the fiber core refractive index classification mainly step-index optical fiber and graded-index fiber. According to the transmission mode of light points, have a multimode optical fiber and single mode fiber.
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