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A collection of basic knowledge of all kinds of optical fiber and cable and its devices

A collection of basic knowledge of all kinds of optical fiber and cable and its devices


1. FTTH cable

FTTH(FiberToTheHome), as the name suggests, is an optical fiber straight to the home.Specifically, FTTH refers to the optical network unit (ONU) installed in the home user or enterprise user, which is the closest application type of optical access network to the user in the optical access series except FTTD(fiber to the desktop).

The advantages of FTTH are mainly as follows:

First, it is a passive network, from the end of the office to the user, the middle can basically do passive;

Second, its bandwidth is relatively wide, long distance just in line with the large-scale use of operators;

Third, there is nothing wrong with it, because it is a business on fibre optics.

Fourth, it supports flexible protocols due to its wide bandwidth.

Fifth, with the development of technology, relatively complete functions have been developed including point-to-point, 1.25g and FTTH.

2. Indoor optical cable

Indoor fiber optic cables are classified according to the use of the environment, and the opposite is outdoor fiber optic cables.

Indoor optical cable is formed by optical fiber (optical transmission carrier) through a certain process.It is mainly composed of optical fiber (thin glass fiber like hair) and plastic protective sleeve and plastic skin. There is no metal such as gold, silver, copper and aluminum in the optical cable, so there is generally no recycling value.

Indoor fiber optic cable is a kind of communication line that a certain number of optical fibers are composed of cable cores in a certain way, and the outer sheath is provided, some of which are also covered by the outer sheath, so as to realize optical signal transmission.

Indoor fiber optic cable tensile strength is small, the protection layer is poor, but also more lightweight, economical.Indoor fiber optic cable is mainly used for building wiring, as well as the connection between network equipment.

3. outdoor fiber optic cable

Figure outdoor optical cable

Outdoor fiber optic cable, used for outdoor fiber optic cable.The opposite is indoor fiber optic cable.

Outdoor optical cable is a kind of communication line to realize optical signal transmission.The cable core consists of a certain number of optical fibers in a certain way, and the outer sheath is provided, some of which are also covered by the outer sheath.

Outdoor optical cable is mainly composed of optical fiber (fine as hair glass) and plastic protective sleeve and plastic skin, there is no gold, silver, copper, aluminum and other metals, generally no recycling value.

Outdoor cable tensile strength is large, the protective layer is thick, and usually for armoring (i.e., metal wrapping).Outdoor fiber optic cable is mainly applied to the interconnection between buildings and remote networks.

4. Optical fiber jumper

Fiber optic jumper (also known as fiber optic connector) is used for jumper connection from equipment to fiber optic wiring link.Optical fiber jumper has a thick protective layer, which is generally used for connecting optical terminal and terminal box.Commonly used fiber jumper includes: ST type, LC type, FC type, SC type.

Figure all kinds of common fiber joints

Main categories:

Single-mode fiber (single-modefiber) : generally, the single-mode fiber jumper is indicated in yellow, and the connector and protective sleeve are blue.Long transmission distance.

Multi-modefiber: generally speaking, multi-mode fiber jumper is shown in orange, but some are shown in gray.Short transmission distance.

Explanation of fiber jumper connector:

Sc: square fiber connector, FC: circular with thread, ST: similar to BNC, LC: transceiver separation structure, mt-rj: square, one end of double fiber, transceiver integration

PC: direct contact, APC: 8 degree inclination contact surface, UPC: arc contact surface

5. Optical fiber coupler

Optical fiber coupler is also called optical FiberAdapter. Optical fiber coupler (FiberAdapter) is used for connection and coupling of optical fiber connector.Choose the model according to the connector of the fiber optic connector.According to the structure of connector, it can be divided into FC, SC, ST, LC, MTRJ, MPO, MU, SMA, DDI, DIN4, D4 and E2000. Good sintering technology is used to ensure excellent strength and stability (200-600gf insertion and extraction force).

Application scope of coupler:

Fiber optic communication network · fiber broadband access network · fiber optic CATV· fiber optic instrumentation · fiber optic LAN

Coupler product diagram:

Figure various optical fiber coupler

6. Optical fiber terminal box

Optical cable terminal box (also known as optical fiber terminal box or optical fiber box) is a small number of optical cable and terminal connection equipment, mainly used for optical cable terminal fixed, optical cable and tail fiber fuse and residual fiber shelter and protection.

Figure fiber box

7. Optical fiber welding machine

Two fiber optic cable connection, the optical fiber inside the cable docking, because the optical fiber is like glass silk, you have to refuse the two ends of the special joint, and then the joint stuck together, so that the optical signal can pass through.

Figure optical fiber welding machine

When the light is transmitted in the optical fiber, there will be loss, which is mainly composed of the transmission loss of the optical fiber itself and the welding loss at the optical fiber junction.Once the optical cable is ordered, the transmission loss of the optical fiber itself is basically determined, and the welding loss at the optical fiber junction is related to the optical fiber itself and field construction.It can increase the transmission distance of optical fiber relay and increase the attenuation margin of optical fiber link by reducing the melting loss of optical fiber junction.

8. Optical fiber transceiver

Fiber optic transceiver, also called Fiber Converter in many places, is an Ethernet transmission media conversion unit that interchanges short distance electrical signals with long distance optical signals.

Figure fiber optic transceiver

Products are generally used in Ethernet cable can not cover, must use optical fiber to extend the distance of the actual network environment, and usually located in the broadband man access layer applications;It has also played a big role in helping to connect the last kilometre of fibre-optic lines to metropolitan networks and beyond.The following figure shows the networking scheme of optical fiber transceiver:

9. Light terminal

Optical transmitter is an optical fiber communication equipment which extends data transmission. It mainly USES the technology of signal modulation and photoelectric conversion to achieve the purpose of remote transmission.Optical transmitters and receivers are generally used in pairs. The optical transmitters complete electrical/optical conversion and transmit optical signals for optical fiber transmission.The optical receiver mainly reduces the optical signal received from the optical fiber to the electrical signal to complete the optical/electrical conversion.Optical terminals are used to transmit data remotely.

Working principle diagram of optical transmitter:

Optical terminal machine is divided into many kinds, such as telephone optical terminal machine, network optical terminal machine, etc., commonly used is video optical terminal machine (especially in the security industry widely used).

Optical transmitter is the terminal equipment of optical signal transmission.His essence is: photoelectric conversion and transmission equipment;On both ends of the cable;A receiving, as the name implies light terminal.So light terminal is used in pairs, generally buy light terminal is to buy a few pairs, not a few.The following figure shows the role of optical transmitter in the whole system.

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