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Common problems of communication optical cable construction

Common problems of communication optical cable construction

2022-11-19

Optical fiber is widely used in the field of communication because of its specific performance. Although the construction level of optical fiber cable has been significantly improved with the improvement of construction technology, there are still natural and artificial problems. This paper mainly expounds the common problems and countermeasures of optical cable construction for reference.


As an important means of long-distance communication, optical cable communication has the characteristics of large communication capacity, long transmission distance and good transmission quality. Many problems need to be overcome and resolved.

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1. Common problems in the construction of communication optical cables


(1). Environmental impact. The burial environment of the optical cable is relatively humid, especially in high temperature and high salt areas, which will corrode the external materials of the optical cable to a certain extent, thereby affecting the internal optical fiber structure and causing hydrogen loss; during the construction process, it is often interfered by external forces, causing hydrogen loss. , After the hydrogen loss problem occurs, the optical fiber will have an incremental attenuation between 1310-1550nm. If the attenuation amplitude reaches a certain value, the signal transmission quality does not meet the standard. The only solution is to change the cable, which will affect normal communication. In addition, the optical cable passes through a lot of mountains, forests, and vegetation, and is easily affected by rats and other influences, resulting in increased loss or even fiber breakage.


(2). Continuity loss. During the splicing process of the communication optical cable, the interface will have a large loss due to the following reasons, even exceeding the specified standard range: First, during the cutting process of the optical fiber, the end face of the optical fiber is prone to breakage, fragmentation, irregularity and other phenomena, resulting in excessive splicing loss. ;Secondly, the optical fiber cable splicing operation is generally carried out in the field, and the harsh splicing environment is easy to attract dust on the section or surface of the optical fiber, thereby increasing the optical fiber loss after the connection; the third is that the two sections of the optical cable connected will increase due to the difference in parameter characteristics. loss of the interface.


(3). Connector loss. The splice loss of the optical fiber usually has a specific range, generally 0.08db. If it exceeds the range, the optical cable needs to be repaired or replaced. The reasons that affect the excessive splice loss mainly include the following three aspects: First, because of the optical fiber cutting tool and welding process The problem leads to a large splicing loss; the second is that due to the limitation of the blind zone of the optical time domain reflectometer, it may cause a large loss at the optical fiber connector; the third is that the test results of the optical time domain reflectometer caused by the optical fiber splice loss appear. The illusion causes loss at the joint.


(4). Improper laying. During the construction process, due to the lack of site investigation of the route, the lack of understanding of the topographic and geological conditions, and the lack of careful cleaning of the laying trenches, the staff could easily damage the outer skin of the optical cable during laying, and the geological changes could easily lead to the interruption of the optical cable. A communication accident occurs. In addition, some construction units lack corresponding rules and regulations and quality management systems, and construction personnel lack strong professional skills and sense of responsibility, and pay less attention to laying quality. Affects link signaling.


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