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What are the types of fiber loss?

What are the types of fiber loss?


1. Optical fiber scattering loss

The scattering inside the fiber will reduce the transmitted power and cause loss. The most important of scattering is Rayleigh scattering, which is caused by changes in density and composition inside the fiber material.

During the heating process of the optical fiber material, due to the thermal disturbance, the compressibility of the atoms is not uniform, the density of the material is not uniform, and the refractive index is not uniform. This inhomogeneity is fixed during the cooling process, and its size is smaller than the wavelength of light. When light encounters these non-uniform substances with random fluctuations smaller than the wavelength of the light wave during transmission, it changes the transmission direction, produces scattering, and causes loss. In addition, the uneven concentration of oxides contained in the optical fiber and uneven doping can also cause scattering and loss.

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2. Waveguide scattering loss

This is scattering due to random distortion or roughness at the interface, and it is actually mode switching or mode coupling caused by surface distortion or roughness. One mode will give rise to other modes of transmission and radiation due to the fluctuation of the interface. Due to the different attenuation of various modes transmitted in the fiber, in the process of long-distance mode conversion, the mode with small attenuation becomes the mode with large attenuation. After continuous transformation and inverse transformation, although the loss of each mode will be balanced, but The mode generally produces additional loss, that is, additional loss due to mode conversion, and this additional loss is the waveguide scattering loss. To reduce this loss, it is necessary to improve the optical fiber manufacturing process. For well-drawn or high-quality fibers, this loss is essentially negligible.

3. Radiation loss caused by fiber bending

Optical fibers are flexible and can be bent, but after bending to a certain extent, although optical fibers can guide light, the transmission path of light will change. The transmission mode is converted into a radiation mode, so that a part of the light energy penetrates into the cladding or passes through the cladding as a radiation mode that leaks out and is lost, resulting in loss. When the bending radius is greater than 5~10cm, the loss caused by bending can be ignored.

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