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What are the common questions about fiber optics?

What are the common questions about fiber optics?


1. What is the nonlinearity of fiber?

Answer: It means that when the optical power of the incoming fiber exceeds a certain value, the refractive index of the optical fiber will be nonlinearly related to the optical power, and Raman scattering and Brillouin scattering will occur, which will change the frequency of the incident light.

2. What effect will fiber nonlinearity have on transmission?

A: Non-linear effects will cause some additional losses and disturbances, degrading the performance of the system. WDM systems have high optical power and travel long distances along the fiber, thus producing nonlinear distortion. There are two types of nonlinear distortion: stimulated scattering and nonlinear refraction. Among them, stimulated scattering includes Raman scattering and Brillouin scattering. The above two kinds of scattering reduce the energy of incident light and cause loss. It can be ignored when the input fiber power is small.

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3. What is PON (Passive Optical Network)?

Answer: PON is an optical fiber loop optical network in the local user access network, based on passive optical devices, such as couplers and optical splitters

Various causes of fiber attenuation

The main factors that cause fiber attenuation are: intrinsic, bending, extrusion, impurities, non-uniformity and butt joint.

Intrinsic: It is the inherent loss of the fiber, including: Rayleigh scattering, intrinsic absorption, etc.

Bending: When the fiber is bent, part of the light in the fiber will be lost due to scattering, resulting in loss.

Squeeze: Loss caused by tiny bends in an optical fiber when it is squeezed.

Impurities: Losses caused by impurities in the fiber absorbing and scattering light propagating in the fiber.

Non-uniformity: Loss caused by non-uniform refractive index of the fiber material.

Docking: The loss generated when the optical fiber is docked, such as: non-axial (the coaxiality of single-mode fiber is required to be less than 0.8 μm), the end face is not perpendicular to the axis, the end face is not flat, the butt core diameter does not match, and the welding quality is poor.

When light enters from one end of an optical fiber and exits from the other end, the intensity of the light decreases. This means that after the optical signal propagates through the fiber, the light energy is partially attenuated. This means that there is some substance in the fiber or for some reason that blocks the passage of the light signal. This is the transmission loss of the fiber. Only by reducing the fiber loss can the optical signal be made unimpeded.

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